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18 Oct 2014

Antenna I1ARZ "Magnetic Loop" for the low-frequency range

The good results obtained with the antenna «Magnetic Loop», led I1ARZ try to build an antenna on the low bands. 
At first he intended to build a loop antenna circular shape (Figure 1) with a perimeter of about 10.5 m, which is a quarter wavelength at 7 MHz. For this purpose we made ​​a loop of copper tube 40 mm in diameter with thin walls, however, in the course of the work it was found that flexion and extension tubes of this size - quite a difficult task, and the shape of the antenna was changed from round to square. A decrease in efficiency is balanced by a considerable simplification of manufacturing. For the range of 1.8 ... 7.2 MHz can be used copper tube diameter of 25 ... 40 mm. One can also use a duralumin tube, but not all have the possibility of welding in argon. After assembling all the antenna frame is covered with several layers of protective lacquer. For proper operation of the antenna tuning capacitor is very important. He must be of good quality, with a large gap between the plates using a vacuum capacitor 7 ... 1000 pF with permissible voltage of 7 kV He stands antenna power exceeding 100 W, which is sufficient. In the case where the range is 160 m, the vessel should reach 1600 pF. Hinge square shape is assembled from four copper tubing 2.5 m long and 40 mm diameter tubes are connected together with four water knees of copper. The tubes are welded to the tribes. Opposing sides of the frame to be parallel to each other. At the top of the tube in the middle is cut out a piece of length 100 mm, is inserted into the cut Teflon spindle and is secured on both sides of clamps and screws. Diagonal loop is 3.4 m, the total length - 10.67 m (with copper plates 50 mm wide, which are attached to the ends of the tube that connects the tuning capacitor). To ensure proper contact after their attachment plate should be welded to the ends of trubki.Na Figure 2 shows the frame design with the base and the carrier truck. The mast should be a dielectric, such as steklvolokonnogo rod. One can also use plastic pipe. At the bottom frame is fixed to the carrier mast steel clamps. For strengthening the lower horizontal frame piece on it stretches over a length of about 300 mm heated copper tube slightly larger diameter. Motor torque capacitor strengthened by a steel pipe at a height above the roof about 2 m. Stiffen the entire structure below the motor is installed at least three rastyazhek.Prosche all agree on the antenna frame and the power line using a loop type coaxial cable RG8 or RG213 diameter coil is determined empirically (approximately about 0.5 mm). Connection of the inner core and sheath in accordance with Figure 3. After matching coil is set to the lowest SWR, for protection from rain over the connection area stretches corrugated plastic tube. At the end of the matching coil to install coaxial connector. At the point of attachment of the lower coil matching the fixing clamp is passed duralumin piece of copper tape, which after folding is soldered to the shield of the cable. It is necessary for good electrical contact with the grounded duralumin tube (Figure 4). The upper part of the matching coil is attached to the dielectric mast rubber ties. If the antenna is located on the roof, for remote control of the tuning capacitor requires a drive unit DC motor. Placing the tuning capacitor. As already mentioned, the fixed and movable parts tuning capacitor attached to the upper cut parts of the frame with two copper plates about 0.5 mm thick, 50 mm wide and 300 mm long each. Tuning capacitor is placed in a plastic tube, which is attached to the vertical mast of fiberglass carrier. The upper part of the frame is connected to a Teflon spindle and fixed to the supporting fiberglass pole with U-bolts. Adjust the TRX to a dummy load, switch the output to the antenna TRX. Antenna tuner in this experiment did not use. At a lower power output capacitor start to rotate until a minimum SWR achieve low VSWR If this method does not work, try a few deform matching coil. If the SWR is not improving, it is necessary to turn or to lengthen or shorten. With a little patience, it is possible in the range 1.8 ... 7 MHz to achieve SWR 1 ... 1.5 achieved the following SWR 1.5 - 40 m, 1.2 - 80, 1.1 -160 m results. Adjusting the antenna is "acute." In the range of 160 m bandwidth of the antenna is a unit of kilohertz. Diagram (RP) - almost circular. Antenna gives the best results in the range of 40 m. 50W author established many links with the east coast of the United States with a report of 59 at distances up to 500 km a day reports were 59 + 20 ... 25 dB. The antenna is also very good at the reception, because it is quite "sharp" setting reduces noise and signals are working a number of strong stations antenna works surprisingly well, and in the range of 160 m. From the first attempts to link has been established at a distance of over 500 km with a report of 59 + 20 dB. From a fundamental point of view, in this range the efficiency of the antenna is much lower than in the range of 40 m. 
concluding remarks 
The antenna should be placed as far as possible from large metal objects such as fences, metal poles, gutters, etc. Antenna is not recommended to place indoors as frame antenna transmission emits a strong magnetic field, which is harmful to health. When working with powers above 100 W frame is heated by application of high voltage. At the upper range of the horizontal polarization antenna. 
Same antenna can be constructed on the higher frequencies, thus reducing the dimensions of the frame and capacity of the tuning capacitor.
"Magnetic Loop" for the low-frequency range
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"Magnetic Loop" for the low-frequency range
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"Magnetic Loop" for the low-frequency range
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"Magnetic Loop" for the low-frequency range
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article is taken from a Russian amateur radio site

4 Oct 2014

a device for measuring SWR antenna - feeder system

To set up the antenna-feeder devices such as using the matching device described in the previous post is needed SWR. If you have no desire or ability to buy or just want to raise their hands, then you are offered two simple shemki of SWR. The first scheme is an SWR bridge, one arm of the bridge consists of two resistors R1, R2, these resistors have equal values​​. The other arm is formed R3, R4, R5 are as 100,75,51 Ohm, respectively. If the input impedance coincides with the position (SA1) of a selected resistor this means that the SWR is 1, the line resistance equal to this value. In other cases, the SWR is given by SWR = (100 + X) / (100-X), where X is the reading unit. If your transmitter (amplifier) has a transistor output is to control the SWR antenna - feeder device is desirable to use a second circuit. This circuit comprises a transformer, it is wound on a magnetic core transformer rf shielded. This scheme determines the SWR antenna-feeder devices accurately. Before use, it must be adjusted instead of the antenna loaded the active resistance equal to the characteristic impedance of the feeder, this resistance must be powerful enough and with small losses.

a device for measuring SWR antenna - feeder system

28 Sep 2014

Matching device for antennas band from 1.8 MHz to 30 MHz

The figure shows a diagram of a universal matching device for matching single-ended antenna-feeder devices (antenna type "long" wire, coaxial cable). This matching device matches the transmitter / receiver to the output / input impedance of 50-75 th c antenna having an active component of the input impedance from 10 to 1000 ohms and inductive or capacitive reactive component of the input impedance of 500 ohms. Alignment is performed in the area from 1.8 to 30 MHz. The coil L1 is wound on a ceramic frame 50 mm diameter copper wire - 1.5 mm diameter. From XS1: 2 turns in increments of 5 mm + 2 turns in increments of 5 mm + 3 turns to step 3 mm + 5 turns with a pitch of 3 mm + 5 Section 7 turns in 2 mm increments. Switch SA1 matching device changes the inductance L1.SA2 - change agreement scheme. The figure switches are in position when the antenna impedance is low. The next position of these switches for use with antennas having a high input impedance. As noted above, this matching device can be applied not only to align the antennas but also to match an unbalanced coaxial line. Transmitter power of 200 watts and above the gap between the plates of C1 must be at least 3 mm!

universal matching device

20 Jun 2014

Antenna for 432 MHz band with 21 dB gain

Antenna Backscatter length 4L. Antenna is shown in Figure. The antenna has a gain of 21.4 dB
with respect to increased half-wave dipole. The excitation system consists of a vibrator and a reflector nine directors. Reflector antenna configured as a disc whose diameter is equal to one wavelength. The vibrator has a length KL / 2. The first director is spaced a distance from the vibrator W-D1 = 0,2 L, each next - at a distance of 0,4 L from the previous one. The lengths of all Directors are equal (length director depends on its thickness). Full length of the excitation system is 4L. Large M reflector antenna has a diameter D, = 4L. In front of him at a distance of 0.25L. placed another ring-shaped reflector, the external diameter of which is 6L, and the internal - 4L. Studies have shown that this antenna has a gain of 8 dB greater than the antenna Uda-Yagi length 8L. Height w reflector ring is usually 0,25 L. Research has shown that an additional effect on the height of the antenna gain. The second figure shows the dependence of gain for one value of the diameter D = 2,35 L. Additional strengthening is added to strengthen that implements regular antenna is Backscatter flat reflector. An antenna with a large gain value for the 432 MHz band encounters certain difficulties, especially associated with the manufacture of a reflector of a sufficiently large diameter, since in this case it is necessary to ensure the necessary rigidity of the reflector and the carrying beam. Advantages of this antenna: high gain, power and simplicity of the relatively small size of the antenna criticality.


antenna fo 432 mhz